Advocacy for the Deaf and Mute Patients

As you nurses go on with your daily tasks of carrying out doctor’s orders and caring for your patients, have you ever wondered what happened to the old fashion way of nurse-patient interaction? How many of your patients today have you actually took time to talk to and learn first hand information on what specific set of behaviour brought them to the hospital today? One? None?

With the nurse-patient ratio existent in many public hospitals today, it is quite impossible to attain this one basic principle you learned from Fundamentals of Nursing. It is not surprising that many people are still unaware how much activity a nurse must finish within her 8-hour shift. Most of the time, spending a quality nurse-patient interaction would be the least of the nurse’s priority because of staffing shortage as well as the tasks that she needs to accomplish within the day. As such, how will a nurse get sufficient clinical subjective information from the communication-challenged individuals, like the mute and deaf? Surely, a private hospital will have an in-house specialist for this type of clients. But how about the government or public hospitals? Would you say public hospital nurses are not up to this type of challenge? Before you make up your mind, here are two factors which, both the private and public hospital will have difficulty in resolving:

Patient’s Communication Skills

Bear in mind that effective communication involves feedback. Regardless of the presence of an in-house communication specialist within the private hospital, if the patient cannot communicate using the tools that the specialist have, there won’t be any progress at all. What will a nurse do if she has a deaf and mute as well as illiterate patient?

A nurse can use illustrations and photos to teach this type of patient, but to get the subjective data necessary to confirm a clinical status would require quality nurse-patient interaction and collaboration with the closest family member of the patient.

Reason for Hospital Admission

It is not surprising for a nurse to receive a patient with symptoms of abuse. She can take note of this from the bouts of crying or tension of the patient whenever the source of abuse is present. However, this may be difficult when the patient is both deaf and mute. It would be a real challenge to prove abuse, especially if clinical symptoms that are verifiable with physical examination in conjunction with laboratory tests provide no clues. The nurse will have to use her senses most of the time with these types of patients.

Being present inside the room every time someone visits the patient would be ideal. She can take note of her patient’s reaction towards the visitor to assess behavior. She can then recommend these observations to a psychologist.

These patients are those kind of patients that nurses need to spend more time to establish rapport. You can expect that individuals with this disability are more apprehensive of strangers.

Of course, nurses would like to get the ideal – a patient who can communicate his needs clearly and effectively. But alas, the situations most nurses are in, were most of the time, far from the ideal.

It’s circumstances like these that makes a nurse want to learn more – to get her communication skills amplified. She can voluntarily take courses on hand communication for the deaf and the mute. After getting these skills, she can gather out of school youth in her locale and teach the basics to these children and teenagers. At the hospital, she can propose a program for the admitted deaf and mute patients to learn the basics of this communication.

The nurse may not be satisfied with these simple altruistic methods, such that she can start to join NGO’s and advocate this in public schools, colleges and universities. In fact, a nurse can do a study on this and have it communicated to the allied health professions as a wake up call. Well, these are just ideas, but hey, human inventions resulted from ideas, right?

Communication is one of the best gifts to the human race. This skill needs to get reviewed from time to time in order to see if the techniques we use are still effective. As such Olivia hopes to inspire the reader to take action on their small way, making their small part of the world a better place to stay.


10 Basic Steps in Special Education

When a child is having trouble in school, it’s important to find out why. The child may have a disability. By law, schools must provide special help to eligible children with disabilities. This help is called special education and related services.

There’s a lot to know about the process by which children are identified as having a disability and in need of special education and related services. This section of CPIR’s website is devoted to helping you learn about that process.

This brief overview is an excellent place to start. Here, we’ve distilled the process into 10 basic steps. Once you have the big picture of the process, it’s easier to understand the many details under each step. We’ve indicated throughout this overview where, on our site, you can connect with that more detailed information.

Step 1. Child is identified as possibly needing special education and related services.

There are two primary ways in which children are identified as possibly needing special education and related services: the system known as Child Find (which operates in each state), and by referral of a parent or school personnel.

Child Find. Each state is required by IDEA to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities in the state who need special education and related services. To do so, states conduct what are known as Child Find activities.

When a child is identified by Child Find as possibly having a disability and as needing special education, parents may be asked for permission to evaluate their child. Parents can also call the Child Find office and ask that their child be evaluated.

Referral or request for evaluation. A school professional may ask that a child be evaluated to see if he or she has a disability. Parents may also contact the child’s teacher or other school professional to ask that their child be evaluated. This request may be verbal, but it’s best to put it in writing.

Parental consent is needed before a child may be evaluated. Under the federal IDEA regulations, evaluation needs to be completed within 60 days after the parent gives consent. However, if a State’s IDEA regulations give a different timeline for completion of the evaluation, the State’s timeline is applied.

Step 2. Child is evaluated.

Evaluation is an essential early step in the special education process for a child. It’s intended to answer these questions:

  • Does the child have a disability that requires the provision of special education and related services?
  • What are the child’s specific educational needs?
  • What special education services and related services, then, are appropriate for addressing those needs?

By law, the initial evaluation of the child must be “full and individual”—which is to say, focused on that child and that child alone. The evaluation must assess the child in all areas related to the child’s suspected disability.

The evaluation results will be used to decide the child’s eligibility for special education and related services and to make decisions about an appropriate educational program for the child.

If the parents disagree with the evaluation, they have the right to take their child for an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE). They can ask that the school system pay for this IEE.

Step 3. Eligibility is decided.

A group of qualified professionals and the parents look at the child’s evaluation results. Together, they decide if the child is a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA. If the parents do not agree with the eligibility decision, they may ask for a hearing to challenge the decision.

Step 4. Child is found eligible for services.

If the child is found to be a child with a disability, as defined by IDEA, he or she eligiblefor special education and related services. Within 30 calendar days after a child is determined eligible, a team of school professionals and the parents must meet to write an individualized education program (IEP) for the child.

Step 5. IEP meeting is scheduled.

The school system schedules and conducts the IEP meeting. School staff must:

  • contact the participants, including the parents;
  • notify parents early enough to make sure they have an opportunity to attend;
  • schedule the meeting at a time and place agreeable to parents and the school;
  • tell the parents the purpose, time, and location of the meeting;
  • tell the parents who will be attending; and
  • tell the parents that they may invite people to the meeting who have knowledge or special expertise about the child.

Step 6. IEP meeting is held and the IEP is written.

The IEP team gathers to talk about the child’s needs and write the student’s IEP. Parents and the student (when appropriate) are full participating members of the team. If the child’s placement (meaning, where the child will receive his or her special education and related services) is decided by a different group, the parents must be part of that group as well.

Before the school system may provide special education and related services to the child for the first time, the parents must give consent. The child begins to receive services as soon as possible after the IEP is written and this consent is given.

If the parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. If they still disagree, parents can ask for mediation, or the school may offer mediation. Parents may file a state complaint with the state education agency or a due process complaint, which is the first step in requesting a due process hearing, at which time mediation must be available.

Step 7. After the IEP is written, services are provided.

The school makes sure that the child’s IEP is carried out as it was written. Parents are given a copy of the IEP. Each of the child’s teachers and service providers has access to the IEP and knows his or her specific responsibilities for carrying out the IEP. This includes the accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided to the child, in keeping with the IEP.

Step 8. Progress is measured and reported to parents.

The child’s progress toward the annual goals is measured, as stated in the IEP. His or her parents are regularly informed of their child’s progress and whether that progress is enough for the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year. These progress reports must be given to parents at least as often as parents are informed of their nondisabled children’s progress.

Step 9. IEP is reviewed.

The child’s IEP is reviewed by the IEP team at least once a year, or more often if the parents or school ask for a review. If necessary, the IEP is revised. Parents, as team members, must be invited to participate in these meetings. Parents can make suggestions for changes, can agree or disagree with the IEP, and agree or disagree with the placement.

If parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. There are several options, including additional testing, an independent evaluation, or asking for mediation, or a due process hearing. They may also file a complaint with the state education agency.

Step 10. Child is reevaluated.

At least every three years the child must be reevaluated. This evaluation is sometimes called a “triennial.” Its purpose is to find out if the child continues to be a child with a disability, as defined by IDEA, and what the child’s educational needs are. However, the child must be reevaluated more often if conditions warrant or if the child’s parent or teacher asks for a new evaluation.


Graphic Design Career Tips

1. Study and get diploma

It is very important for a designer who is considering a career in graphic design to get course in a recognized school, so as to go ahead with the necessary training. This training focuses on the acquisition techniques and will give essential base to enter the professional field.

Courses in graphic design are available for you at different levels and areas of concentration. You will be able to enter a computer graphics program accredited learning to develop the career of your choice and exceed your knowledge to join the workforce. Through the study of the many options available you will be able to choose by the way the school that suit your needs based on you interests.

2. Practice:

If you are new to the industry of graphic design you must engage more deeply, by making more research to get your skills to a higher level. It is not easy as it sounds, experienced designers have spent a large part of their time in research and practice to achieve what they are.

Whether you are a graphic design student with the first steps in the field of design, or an experienced graphic designer, only duplicate efforts and curiosity about the design that will make you get more experience in the work place.

3. Making Notes:

Whenever you make a new idea write it, you must develop your own generator of ideas this is very essential in design industry. The best known method is brainstorming, it’s is used by most designers of the most famous artistic firms. Only methodically organized with a sense of innovation. A good way to develop your imagination by reading design magazines and books, and watching movies.

So as you can see, it is not enough to have a good skill in software if you can mix the two, there is a great possibility that you will be successful in any graphic design business and any company be happy to hire you for your services.

4. Building a network:

Most designers have spent more time in their office / studio so it is very important to be rounded with supportive work team to support you, and building a network of trust will help you in many different situations not only in work but also in life. You can expand your network by attending events or seminars, be in contact with people who can help your career and network. Find out how often you update the contact information. You can easily create your network by helping others, because when you help you get helped.

5. Gaining experience:

Focusing only on studying for diploma in design may not be enough. Some employers if not most of them are looking for potential employers with experience in the field, in addition to diploma, especially if you are in an area of design you must get experience by practicing. Become a professional designer will take time and a good experience. Some graphics programs can train students for prior experience in the field before getting the first job while they still in college.

6. Building a portfolio:

A virtual portfolio can act as a showcase for your skills, you can begin building your portfolio while you’re in college. There are many services online that offer this for free, with a website as weebly.com you can create a showcase for your digital work and make upgrade to get full service.

Many independent designers choose to work for companies in the world, they make income from the comfort of their home. Although many of them run to build a portfolio of high value as they get more experience and more work to show for potential clients. On the other hand, designers prefer to work at home, because there are great opportunities for outsourcing, and the emergence of the Internet as an effective tool to communicate with the world.


Mainstream or Special School?

Choosing what school any child should go to can be difficult. But when your child has special needs or learning difficulties, making the right decision is vital.

However, if your child has the option to go to either Mainstream or Special School, this decision becomes even harder.

You want your child to be happy, but there is that underlying fear that if they go to special school this may in some way hinder them when they’re older.

We fear that by sending them into special education, they may not be able to achieve their goals.

It is important to realise that this decision is a decision that is completely dependent on the individual child. So what might be best for one child won’t be best for another.

I have chosen with my son so far, to keep him in mainstream education. Because at the moment he is happy and he is making friends and progressing (albeit slowly).

However, I am open to the idea of special school, so if he becomes unhappy or just can’t manage in mainstream then I will send him to a special needs school.

At special needs schools it is often a lot less focused on academics and more focused on creativity, life skills, and social skill building. For many children these are skills they need and can be provided for them in a much less stressful and happier environment.

Of course as with anywhere, some special schools are better than others and it is important to visit several different places to find the one that is best suited to your child.

Often children can manage well whilst in mainstream at primary age, but it is when transitioning to high school that special school becomes more of a realistic option.

Mainstream High School can be very challenging for some children with special needs. They are often quite large compared to primary. And can be very academically focused. Which for many children with special needs is simply too much or too hard for them.

It is very important to stay flexible on this subject. As it might be the case that your child may be fine in mainstream up until a point, then you may have to consider special education.

The most important thing is that your child feels happy, supported and encouraged to achieve their goals. If these criteria can be met in mainstream then there is no need to disrupt them by moving them.

However, if a mainstream school can not provide a happy, supportive environment for your child then start researching your local special schools to see if you think they may be a better place for them

If your child is NOT happy in the particular mainstream school they are in.

Before rejecting the idea of mainstream altogether, ask yourself if a different mainstream school may be the answer.

Just keep in mind that the right school is the one that best supports YOUR child, a place they can be happy and also encourages them to achieve their goals. Whether this is in a mainstream or a special needs school.


How Can Parents Help a Slow Learner at Home?

Parental guidance is one of the most significant aspects that determine the success of a child. This becomes even more crucial for a child who suffers from slow learning and related challenges. Lack of appropriate parental support and understanding could result in extreme frustration and social troubles in a child who has learning disabilities.

Is Your Child a Slow learner?

If you have ever received complaints about your child being very distracted or not interested or too slow in learning or writing, your child could be clinically classified as a slow learner. Though he or she possesses the basic academic skills, his/her IQ level would be slightly lower than that of a normal child, which creates challenges in processing certain numbers or words.

What should parents do?

The first step to help a slow learner is to accept the child with the shortcomings. It is essential to understand that slow learning is not a medical condition. Hence, it does not always require special education. However, it requires special attention and care with enormous patience, encouragement, complete trust, and faith in the child’s success.

The following are some of the simple steps that parents can take to help a slow learner:

  • Appreciate the Efforts: It is quite common that a slow learner is not able to set goals or have time frames due to distractions. As a parent, it is extremely important never to push your child to achieve anything that challenges his/her abilities. Appreciating the child for every small success would build confidence and show consistent improvement in his or her accomplishments.
  • Extended Time Limits: Judging the capabilities of the child and helping him/her complete tasks he/she is capable of, within extended time limits, would make him/her feel appreciated. However, it is important to not to let your child under-utilize his/her potential.
  • Identify Interests: Kids with slow learning abilities easily get distracted. Identifying activities that the child likes and motivating him/her to take part in such activities at home or school would greatly improve his/her performance.
  • Create a Chart: Creating a chart that sets time for various daily activities would give the child a sense of responsibility and involvement, while encouraging him/her to complete the tasks on time.

Above all, since the attention span of a slow learner is less, making your child work for multiple short sessions rather than a single, long session for any activity would offer better results. One of the major responsibilities of the parent is to interact with the teachers to understand if there are othe


5 Effective Tips To Teach Math For Slow Learners

Slow learners are not any different from the normal students in their intellectual abilities except that they are too distracted and the normal teaching methods do not help them comprehend what is taught. This is why you need special teaching methods for them. When appropriate method is adopted with adequate understanding and support from parents and teachers, these slow learners can turn out to be highly successful in all aspects of life.

There are several approaches and techniques that involve individual and group teaching based on the learning ability of a child, some of which are used by programs of learning centers for such children. These centers have specially trained teachers who use specialized software tools and teaching methodologies to make math and numbers more interesting. Here are five effective tips that professionals believe can help teach math for slow learners:

    1. Practical Lessons: Even normal students do not enjoy confined space for learning and it’s a higher challenge with slow learners. One of the best ways to get math into the child’s head is to make him do little additions, subtractions or multiplications that involve people, things, flowers, fruits, and other practical things that surround him during a walk or a drive.
    1. Teaching in Small Groups or Individually: Since students with slow learning ability require special attention, teaching them alone or in small groups would let the teacher focus on the specific inability of the student. Also, leaning in a group, with peers, would increase the social abilities of the child.
    1. Customized Plan: Students love classes filled with fun and creativity. That’s why several learning programs for slow learners have customized plans to polish the specific skills that these children lack. Hence, seeking professional help and having appropriate follow ups to help at home would be a great idea to teach mathematics to these children.
    1. Sound Therapy: This has remained one of the most successful methods, which involves using sounds and tools that stimulate auditory pathways and thereby aid listening and focus. Sound therapy also helps to enhance the auditory transmission process in brain by stimulating the muscles around the ear passage and helping to regain the original power or capability.
  1. Cognitive Training: The PACE or Processing and Cognitive Enhancement training program enhances the level of perception or cognition and helps the slow learners have increased attention span and focus, which is especially helpful in learning math. It also boosts the neurological connections and offers significant growth in the student.

How does the slow learner benefit

  • Adapting all the above methods and applying the right training program offers the following benefits:
  • Improved math computation skills
  • Better sequential processing and simultaneous processing
  • Sustained attention and working memory
  • Auditory processing and discrimination, which in turn boosts comprehension and more.

Complete support and appropriate methods of teaching can help any slow learner to be a math genius. So, be patient and use these tips to see how a slow learner starts loving and enjoying mathematics.


Daily Life Therapy (Higashi) for Autism

Daily Life Therapy (DLT) method also known as Higashi was developed in the 1960s by Dr. Kiyo Kitahara at the Musashino Higashi Gakuen School in Tokyo, Japan. She developed the method through what she learned from teaching a child with autism in a mainstream education kindergarten class. Her main objective was to develop self-esteem of the autism children and create emotional security for them.

Higashi is a Japanese word which means ‘hope’ and it is a holistic approach to integrate autism children with other normal children to study together in one group. There are a few methods used in this approach such as providing a systematic education by involving group dynamics, modelling, physical activities, art, music, academic, and vocational training.

How DLT (Higashi) works

Behavior management in DLT does not involve the measurement of neglect, punishment, time-out procedures or through medication. DLT is not to treat or to cure Autism Syndrome Disorder (ASD), but is believed to provide other important benefits such as improving the skill of ability, flexibility and function appropriately when they are with internal community and also activities involving family. Activities are group-oriented and highly structured with an emphasis on learning transmitted from child to child through synchronisation and imitation.

The Higashi approach emphasises group learning in the context of a programs which includes vigorous physical activity to develop both strength and concentration. Physical activity is one of the academic curriculum’s of children with autism and it is a challenge for their ability level as well as to increase their interest to engage in activities conducted. Practitioners believe that through exercise, children will be able to control the level of body coordination and at the same time control their behavior. Physical activities such as exercises and games have the positive impact on behavioral, psychological, and physical specifically in individual with ASD. DLT programs are normally using an appropriate instruction, equipment, and daily movement activities such as walking, running, climbing, and jumping to improve gross motor skills which allowing children with autism learn to acclimate to the stimulating world around them.

Among the main principles of Daily Life Therapy (Higashi) are as follows:
i. The focus of curriculum is on movement activities, music and arts.
ii. Children engage in vigorous physical activities throughout the day.
iii. Instructions are group oriented, example all children in the class are taught the same thing and at the same time.
iv. Children learn through imitation, for example they imitate exactly what their teacher do.
v. Routine activities are very highly structured.

DLT using the Higashi approach is an educational program for children with autism based on three interrelated principles: vigorous physical exercise, emotional stability and intellectual stimulation. By using these three core principles of DLT, children with autism learn to naturally focus their attention, diffuse their energy, feel calm and relaxed, and allowing them to learn without the need for medication. DLT also provides other important benefits such as improved coping skills, increased flexibility and improved appropriate functioning within the home community and family events. The ultimate goal of DLT is to archive lifelong inclusion in the community and high quality of life.


3 Ways to Help With Dyslexia

Here are 3 questions a woman in Australia had asked me. I hope my answers will benefit you.

1. What is dyslexia? Is it a learning disability where someone has trouble reading and writing?

The word dyslexia comes from Latin and means difficulty with language. People think – because it has been drummed into them from time immemorial – that it’s a learning disability, but it’s nothing more than a learnt behavior – which people treat as a disabilitythat the brain acquires at some young stage by getting confused by something. Dyslexia can reveal itself in many ways:

difficulty with reading

reading speed being slow

reading comprehension being nonexistent [=the reader forgets what s/he read once s/he closes the book]

writing being impossible, slow, or ugly

inability or poor ability to spell

and many other things – every person’s dyslexia is different, so we’d learn by asking each person.

2. There’re actors who are dyslexlic. Don’t they need to memorise heaps of lines?

Actors are primarily auditory, so memorizing lines doesn’t pose a problem, because they do it by sound. As long as the dyslexic ones don’t have to go near the printed word, they’ll memorize any lines! I said primarily auditory. But that doesn’t mean all actors are only auditory. Those who are primarily visual will memorize lines by methods such as loci whereby they memorize contexts through making objects in their environments be their memory anchors for things and then looking at those objects in the order in which they need to memorize the things corresponding to the objects. So the appropriate lines will come when the actors look at the object that anchors those lines for them. Also, because they’ve been memorizing lines daily for years, they’ve trained their brains and their memories will be excellent!

3. Why do people with dyslexia have to wear blue and green coloured glasses?

A person is officially “diagnosed” with dyslexia when s/he looks at a page full of words and the words are moving around. The tinted glasses are supposed to stop this movement. They will stop it up to a point, but will never completely get a person out of dyslexia, because if the person’s brain produces word movement, it doesn’t matter whether s/he sees the page through green, blue, or pink glasses – the words will still be moving, because the movement is a product of the brain = from within the person.

And now something this woman didn’t ask: how can we prevent dyslexia?

In many cases dyslexia occurs when children first come to contact with words. The reason for this is that up to the age when a child starts reading and writing everything in the child’s world is three-dimensional. Words are the first things in two dimensions and this can confuse the brain. Because people with dyslexia are incredibly visual, they work very hard to recreate the 3D effect with words by turning them around and over in all directions in their imaginations. This causes the letters or whole words to move around the page and then there’s no wonder that they have nightmares about going anywhere near words, reading or writing them!

Another common reason for dyslexia is this: if a child has a parent or a pair of parents who have dyslexia, the child will naturally take this up as the norm “if mommy & daddy do it this way, this is how it should be done [and how I will do it]”. So the child will be copying the behaviors of the parent(s) without knowing why, because a child’s reasoning has not yet been developed.

Therefore: Teach children from their youngest age to see words as pictures in their imaginations, because this is how people without dyslexia do it. Ask a good speller to spell a word and he’ll see it in his mind as a still [=not moving] picture first, then the picture of that word will give him a “right” feeling, and then he’ll finally spell it out loud. People with dyslexia do not SEE the word – instead they try to sound out each letter or to feel for how the word should be spelt – i.e. “hmmm, this feels / doesn’t feel right!” This is unreliable, because sounds and feelings take time to happen. But when you see a picture, you see a lot of information in front of you in a fraction of a second and the same applies for you remembering something as a picture!

Tell children stories and encourage them to visualize [imagine] the content of the stories. Then ask them questions about where, when, what, how, why, and who was in the story and what things and people looked like. This is how you’ll be teaching reading comprehension and this is how they’ll remember what they read for much longer after they’ve closed the book! And moving words will not be an issue.


Dealing With Problems With Handwriting

I worked with a man who used to write with his right hand, but one day suddenly wasn’t able to write the letters a and s and eventually anything with that hand. Even o became problematic! Then he learnt to write with his left hand and did so for years until one day the same happened as did with his right hand! Everything else in his life was OK except writing. He was a student and was pretty depressed about the uncertainty of his future etc…

So I advised him to:

1. Deal with his depression. Although it’s natural that he’d be depressed in such situation, no one learns anything while depressed. So I told him to acknowledge the depression, extract its positive intention for him, and turn the depression down a few notches which would open him to learning.

2. Since his handwriting problem was very context specific, I next asked him to carefully examine all the circumstances in his life at the time when his right hand had stopped writing. Had he developed the extreme reaction in response to something unfortunate, difficult, unpleasant, traumatic, or problematic at the time?

3. To examine his life in the same way around the time when his left hand stopped writing. Once he had this done, he could compare the two sets of circumstances. Was there a pattern? A recurring theme? Any similarities?

4. To deal with beliefs. No matter what the findings around his two reactions, those reactions were based on something the man believed at the time – and then reacted to.

People with problems with handwriting commonly believe that their hand/arm/brain have “stopped” working and that’s why they cannot write. Because we do what we believe in, there’s no wonder that these beliefs make people unable to write. Of course, if you break your arm, you can’t write. But you also believe that the arm is broken temporarily and will heal to normal. In this case – and many others revolving around handwriting – these beliefs are formed as a wall of protection against something. The brain gets overwhelmed and gets a power cut which will demonstrate itself in stopping function of the hand.

If you have experience with any such belief, treat it as that person’s best current thinking. In reality nothing is wrong with their hands/arms/brains – apart from their response. Responses and beliefs can be disproven and then changed to more useful ones.

Here are more practical steps I advised this man:

Letters a and s written in lower case are similar at a glance and from the distance. The letter e in lower case also fits into the group. If you wish to relearn writing any letters, take one letter at a time which is written somewhere and observe it. Keep looking at it and trace its shape with your eyes along its lines and curves exactly as you see it.

Once you have traced it with your eyes, try drawing it with your finger in the air.

Now draw it again – this time with your whole hand holding a pen on paper…

Another good exercise is to take a picture printed on paper, turn it upside down, and copy it line for line. At first this may seem impossible, but once you get into it, you’ll be surprised at how good you’ll be at it!


Vocational Training for People With Disabilities

The central government of India has launched various initiatives to inculcate the entrepreneurship skills in differently-abled people. These public schemes include Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme, skill training at national institutes, Scheme for Implementation of Persons with Disabilities and Vocational Rehabilitation Centre for Handicapped. In this regard, a national action plan has been launched to ensure the proper implementation of these abovementioned initiatives.

Developing Employable Skills in the Population

Today, the government faces the main challenges of developing employable skills in people with physical and mental limitations and to ensure gainful employment for them. According to 2011 census, there are about 2.68 Crore of differently-abled in India whose job requirements are not met. One of the major reasons is that 68 percent of the Indian population inhabits the rural areas while their conditions are aggravated from poverty considerations and inaccessible health services.

Connecting Them to Markets and Skills

The number of persons with disabilities living in these areas, are actually disconnected from markets and skills. A financial safety net is ensured for them through vocational training for people with disabilities and it offers them a reason to rejoice for their economic independence. Better employment opportunities can be sought through vocational training to ensure quality life for the differently-abled people. It also brings substantial gains to the economy in a broader context.

Work Upon Where the Huge Gap Lies

Now, the question arises about the place where the huge gap lies. There is a need to upgrade the infrastructure of skill training in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply. Much of the training also lacks quality leading to less employability. There is a great need felt towards the private sector to increase its involvement in the vocational training of individuals with disabilities. Many times, it has been felt that the skill training imparted by different ministries is either overlapping or fragmented.

Ensuring Quality Vocational Training

Therefore, only quality vocational training can lead to high employability while adopting a homogenous curriculum and methodology of training. Furthermore, there is a need to have latest technology in content generation as well as training and its monitoring. Also needed is the growing synergy between NGOs and the private sector to participate together in the skill development and placement process of people with different abilities.

Solving the Big Problem

The targeted and optimum utilisation of the CSR funds may solve many of the problems. The key stakeholders like state governments, public sector undertakings, NGOs, the private sector and all Central government ministries may be of great help in such endeavours. This is because it is a known fact that only a collective effort can help us in winning over the existing situation.